How to Make Broiler Mash: Starter Mash, Grower Mash and Finisher Mash

Poultry Feed Formulation: Milled Poultry Feed

In the article, we will briefly look at the ingredients and the formula guiding the formulation of the broiler starter mash, grower mash, finisher mash and the post-finisher mash:-

How to Make Broiler Starter Mash

The broiler starter mash is formulated for the farmers who raise for the live markets and sell them at the age of six to eight weeks. The broiler rations must generally include a growth promoter and a coccidiostat. However, these are excluded from the post-finisher broiler mash.

The broiler starter mash should not include any growth hormones or animal by-products in the formulation.

The  broilers should be fed the starter mash from the time they are one day old to 16 days old. The approximate feed consumption for the broilers will vary between 600g to 800g per bird.

The broiler starter mash is generally in the format of mash or crumbles. You should feed the chickens crumbles so as to ensure faster growth as well as more efficient feed conversion. However, if you want to slow down the growth and minimizes the occurrences of the waterbelly, you can feed the chickens the poultry mash.

The table below shows the ingredients used in broiler starter mash formulation and the ration in which these ingredients should be mixed:-

ingredients and their correct proportion in formulating broilers starter
ingredients and their correct proportion in formulating broilers starter

How to Make Broiler Grower Mash

The broiler growers mash is in pellet form.  The broiler grower mash is fed to the chickens from the age of 17 days to 30 days. Just like in the broiler starter mash, the rations in the broiler grower mash contain a growth promoter and coccidiostat but no growth hormones or animal-byproducts. The feed consumption per bird will approximately be 1.5kg.  Below is a table showing the nutrient content for a broiler grower mash formulation:-

ingredients and their correct proportion in formulating broilers grower mash
ingredients and their correct proportion in formulating broilers grower mash


How to Make Broiler Finisher Mash

The broiler finisher mash is fed to the chickens from the age of 30 days to the age of 38 days. Every bird will consume approximately 1kg of broiler finisher mash from the age of 30 days to the age of 38 days.  The broiler finish mash is in the form of pellets.

ingredients and their correct proportion in formulating broilers finisher mash
ingredients and their correct proportion in formulating broilers finisher mash

The Broiler Post Finisher Mash

The broiler post finisher mash is fed to the broilers five days before slaughter.  This diet is richer in protein content.




Poultry Feed Mill Equipment

Shandong Rotex Machinery Poultry Pellet Feed Machine

A feed production mill is a must have if you are planning to make your own poultry feeds at home or in a small industrial plant. Feed milling equipment consists of various components. These include the feed grinding machine, a feed mixing machine, the feed pellet machine, the feed pellet cooling machine as well as a feed pellet packing machine.

Poultry Feed Pellets
Poultry Feed Pellets

Apart from these core poultry feed mill equipment, there are also auxiliary feed mill equipment that make all this function together as a unit. These including the conveying machine or a system of conveyance belts, a control cabinet, dust collectors, storage bins, fire protection equipment and many others. It all depends on how well equipped and sophisticated you want your poultry feed milling plant to be.

For more information on how this entire system works during the feed processing, check out our post on the poultry feed production line that explains what happens in every component. If you are going to establish poultry feed production line or milling plant, you will have to purchase all these machine components and install them on your production floor with some technical assistance.

Feed Mill Equipment Basic Operations

The basis operations of poultry feed mill equipments includes the following processes:-

  • Receiving the raw materials
  • Grinding the raw materials
  • Batching
  • Mixing the raw materials
  • Pelleting
  • Cooling
  • Sifting or Screening
  • Packaging the processed poultry feed
  • Warehousing the processes feed

Receiving the Raw Materials

The poultry feed mill is equipped to receive various kinds of raw materials. Depending on the design of the poultry mill, the plant line can receive either a truck or rail delivery and sometimes, it can receive both deliveries.

The various ingredients to be used in processing the poultry feed such as the grains, fats, fish meal, pre-mixes and molasses are delivered to the plant by trucks. The grains and soybean meal are generally delivered by rail.

The dry ingredients to be used in formulating the poultry feeds can be received in bags or in bulk. The liquid ingredients to be used in poultry feed formulation such as molasses and fat can be pumped directly into the storage tank in the feed mill line.

The bulk grain and other solid ingredients can be conveyed via a conveyor or bucket elevator to be cleaned or screen before being stored in the storage bins within the feed mill.


The solid grains must be ground in the feed mill by the poultry feed grinder or the feed hammer mill. This is done before the feed is mixed with the other feed ingredients to be used in the poultry feed formulation.


During the feed formulation, the various ingredients being used to make the poultry feed must be weighed quantitatively, in batches. The quantity of the various ingredients that you will feed into the feed mill scale hopper is to be controlled from a central console. This can be done either automatically or manually with aim of ensuring that you feed in the correct ratio for each ingredient.


The mixing is done by the feed mixer in the poultry feed mill. The feed mixing will uniformly mix all the individual ingredients being used in the poultry feed formulation. The mixing time will depend on the property of the feed ingredients being used as well as feed formulation for the particular poultry feed that you are making.


During the pelleting stage, the mixed/blended feed ingredients are fed into the pelleting machine in the production line. The pelleting process involves various stages. The mixture of feed ingredients goes into the pellet mill feeder. This will control the rate at which the feed ingredients mixture mixture will enter the feed pelleting equipment.

The next process at the pelleting stage involves the blending together of the dry mixed materials withs team in order to create a wet mesh. It this wet mash that is fed to the mill pelleting machine. It can be pushed here either through gravity or via a forced feeder system.

Inside the pelleting chamber, the hot and moist mash is forced through a pellet mash dye whereupon it is converted into pellets of the desired size and shapes.

Cooling and Sifting

The pelletized poultry feed are finally cool before packaging. The hot feed mixture is feed into the pellet cooling machine by gravity. The cooling is done in order to get durable and hard pellets. Once the pellets are cooled, they will flow into the screening machine where there is the scalping of the pelleted mash into the fines and mash.

Packing and Warehousing the Poultry Feed

The finished pellets are finally weighed, packaged and sealed. This can be done either manually or automatically. Finally, the packaged feed are warehoused ready for distribution to the market.

Maintaining the Feed Mill Equipment

The poultry feed mill should be maintained well and on a regular basis in order to improve its operational efficiency as well as the quality of the feed produced. Proper maintenance will also reduce the instances of feed contamination during processing.

There are various kinds of maintenance that you can perform on your poultry feed mill. These include the emergency maintenance, routine maintenance, the call-in maintenance as well as preventive maintenance.

The routine maintenance for your poultry feed mill is the scheduled maintenance that you carry out regularly based on a fixed routine. Typical routine maintenance work includes activities such as the lubrication of the bearings, replacing the hammer mill screens, replacing the worn out parts of the poultry feed mill equipment or checking the oil levels in the poultry feed mill gear boxes.

With emergency maintenance work, you will be reacting sudden unplanned breakdowns in the machinery. This must be done immediately in order to get the machine running on schedule.

Call-in maintenance also comes into play in an emergency situation. In this case, the people to do the maintenance are not on site and must be called from outside.

Preventive maintenance for the poultry feed mill machine involves making certain adjustments and carrying out inspections and repairs on the equipment. This involves activities such as repairing the worn out parts before they fail based on observation in order to forestall further damage and ensure the feed mill machine is working smoothly.


How to Make Poultry Feed

types of poultry feeds

Making poultry feed is not particularly rocket science. You only need the right ingredients in the right amounts for the type of chickens that you are formulating the feeds for. The rest is just mixing, grinding and pelletizing the feed for your flock in order to make them more palatable for your chickens.

Poultry Feed Ingredients
Poultry Feed Ingredients

You can read more on the various kinds of the poultry feed pellet machines that are currently in the market.

Due to the rising feed costs and the fact that many farmers now want more control or at least more transparency on the feed formulation processes and ingredients used by their suppliers, the business of poultry feed milling is fast growing in popularity, not just among small scale agricultural entrepreneurs but also among small scale farmers with a flock of a few thousand flock.

Poultry feed milling as a part of an integrated poultry production system helps farmers cut down on the costs of feeds and place more oversight on the kinds of ingredients that go into their poultry feeds.

However, when it comes to poultry feed milling, farmers still grapple with a host of challenges. For example, what ingredients will they use to mill the poultry feed? What is the formula for mixing up these ingredients? What amounts of feed supplements and additives should they use? What kind of feed pellet machinery should they use in preparing the poultry feed? Should they purchase a small poultry feed milling machine or invest in an entire feed production line? These are some of the questions y0ou are likely to grapple with when trying to set up a poultry feed mill.

The Raw materials used in making poultry feed

This is one of the areas where you will have utmost flexibility because many of the ingredients commonly used in poultry feed formulation can easily be substituted with locally available grains.

Grind or Whole Portion Raw Materials

  • Barley
  • Wheat
  • Oats
  • Corn
  • Peas
  • Alfalfa Pellets


  • Cultured Yeast
  • Crab Meal
  • Fish meal
  • Kelp
  • Salt
  • Aragonite
  • Flax seed

The Formula for Mixing Your Chicken Feed Pellet

Crude Protein Minimum: 16.5%

Crude Fiber Maximum: 5%

Calcium Minimum: 3.5%; Maximum 4%

Crude Fat Minimum: 3%

Lysine Minimum: 0.7%

Phosphorous Minimum: 0.5%

Salt: Minimum: 0.2%; Maximum 0.4%

Methionine Minimum: 0.2%


Poultry Feed Pellet Milling Machine

There are numerous machines in the market that can be used for poultry feed milling. Many of the smaller poultry feed milling machines are fairly easy to install on your premises and operate. When buying a suitable poultry feed pelleting machine, you will need to factor in considerations such as the capacity of the machine, pellet size, power consumption, technical support among other factors. The poultry feed production lines are generally more sophisticated and require serious investments and more comprehensive technical support to get them running and working smoothly.

Many of the smaller poultry feed pelleting machines cost anywhere from $500 to $2000. The larger poultry feed pelleting machines will cost in the regions of $4000 to $8000 while poultry feed production lines can cost anywhere from $25,000 to millions of dollars.

The smallest poultry feed milling machines can have a capacity ranging from 60kg/hour to 100kg/hour. These typically cost anywhere from $500 to $1000. The medium scale poultry feed pelleting machines will have a capacity of 400kg/hour to 600kg/hour and may cost anywhere from $1000 to $8000.

However, keep in mind that many of these smaller poultry feed pelleting machines may not have grinder functions. If you want a machine that will grind, mix and pellet, make sure you read the specifications of the machines before making a purchase. Otherwise you might find yourself only buying a pelleting machine. This will force you to grind your poultry feed ingredients elsewhere before you bring them to the machine for pelleting.

Why Choose a Poultry Food Pelleting Machine for Your Chicken?

A good poultry feed pelletizer makes quality poultry feed that is not just palatable but where the nutritional integrity of the poultry feed ingredients is preserved. This can significantly boost the feed conversion and subsequently, the health and yield of your flock. Quality poultry feed is integral to the success of your poultry farming enterprise.

Poultry Feed Pelleting Machine
Poultry Feed Pelleting Machine

Chickens in different stages of growth will need different pellet size of poultry feeds and a poultry pelleting machine can help you formulate varied rations of your poultry feed, suited for the different ages of your chickens.